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水资源现状及污水再生利用(英汉互译)

2018-01-20    作者:    来源:    阅读:142

Present situation of water resources in Hebei province and sewage recycling

Foreword

Water is the survival and development of mankind's most valuable natural resources, with the urban population explosion and economic development, expanding the size of the cities, urban water and wastewater constantly increased, urban water supply and demand become more prominent, Water has become the largest urban development constraints. According to statistics, China's urban industrial consumption total water consumption of 80% and the use of recycled water for industrial use is very low, and water pollution have become increasingly serious, Many major cities will face a serious water shortage threats. Hebei's water environment the same way, Water shortage and water pollution seriously impeding the province's industrial and agricultural economic development.

1          Present situation of water resources in Hebei

Hebei water resources has "resources" dry and "Water" features the dual water and sewage lower level of resources

1.1          The overall situation of water resources

Hebei is the most dry one of the provinces, and the per capita water resources in China is only 311 m3, in the country's 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions, ranked No. 28. The shortage of urban water resources even more pronounced, especially in summer is the peak period of water, Many cities are often the shortage of water. According to relevant statistics, Zhejiang days of urban water reached 150 ~ 1.7 million m3. All cities have different degrees of water shortages. Shijiazhuang City, the average annual water resources of 2.24 billion m3, in recent years, the city average annual actual consumption has reached 35 ~ 4 billion m3. The main deficiency on the part of overexploitation of groundwater filled. Meanwhile, due to the reuse water level low, Water-saving thinking, serious waste, exacerbated by the shortage of resources and overpopulation of contradictions.

1.2           Hebei groundwater status

According to the investigation, the province groundwater exploitation of resources available for volume 11.986 billion m3. natural groundwater recharge capacity of 17.026 billion m3. which Baoding, Shijiazhuang cities groundwater natural resources relatively more, Hengshui and Langfang, Qinhuangdao City at least three, and the depression cone continue to develop, According to the investigation, in addition to the new Xingtai giant funnel Tangshan Ninghe - Tanghai funnel and Langfang funnel area decreased slightly, Cangzhou funnel area in 2005 than in 2004 expanded the 2089 km2; Xingtai Ningbailong funnel area expanded 659 km2; Other funnel relatively stable or slightly expanded. In another development, Most of the funnel water depth of the center continue to increase. Among them, the per mu yield of Baoding vents, Xingtai Ningbailong funnel center range as high as the water level fell 5.50 m, Hengshui funnel Xingtai new giant funnel water level fell centers 4.42 m and 3.39m. Cangzhou center funnel water level rise 0.13 m, the water level in Langfang funnel center picked up 2.18m.

1.3          Deterioration of the ecological environment

Urban development process inevitably arise atmospheric and water pollution, garbage piles, reduce green space, decrease in the quality of the ecological environment, and other environmental issues. to water pollution as an example, Hebei Province in Haihe River valley more than one-70% ~ 80% of the river pollution, Of these, 50% of the river pollution is severe, Chengde, Qinhuangdao and have some water, the province most of the rivers in the state are : lack of natural runoff, lost diluted basic self-purification capacity has been almost "River were dried, water pollution are "state. these environmental problems led to a number of factors : agricultural and industrial production process backward, waste disposal and utilization of a lower standard of management and technical equipment delay, coupled with a large population, the pressure on the environment, more emphasis on the pollution of the environment

1.4          Sewage treatment and reuse of the status quo

As the province increased the urban water environment governance, and In recent years the city's drainage facilities have also invested with faster growth, Drainage for the investment in 1991 from the 54.63 million yuan to nearly 2 billion yuan, urban sewage processing capacity from 1991 to the 355,000 m3 growth to 500 million m3, The sewage treatment rate has been greatly improved. Currently Hebei urban sewage treatment is around 500 million t / d, urban sewage treatment has basically reached the scale of urban sewage of 70%.  for the urban wastewater reclamation and reuse to create good conditions. With the cause of urban drainage management system to keep on improving. facilities operating rate has increased, but the effluent reuse rate is not high, agricultural irrigation water and municipal water.

Through the above analysis shows, environmental pollution, water shortages and other problems have posed a serious threat to the city's development, in this situation, Sustainable development must explore measures to properly handle the short-term interests and long-term interests, and between economic development and environmental protection, use of resources, so as to promote the city's sustainable development, sewage Resources.

2  Constraints on wastewater reuse factor

Urban sewage resources technically feasible and economically reasonable. Sewage treatment and purification depth for irrigation, industrial water, Municipal water technical issues have been resolved, the corresponding standards and water quality standards are established, on the economy than a long-distance water diversion small investment, operating costs low. Reuse of wastewater but can spur economic sewage treatment industry. greater environmental and social benefits. implement the strategy of sustainable development important measures. But wastewater reuse has not yet widely used, mainly in the following aspects :

2.1  Lack of necessary mandatory system

Some large state-owned enterprises living and high consumption of production, using underground water-owned water wells, City water fees charged lower prices, the use of treated water to the regeneration of no economic value, even reuse of sewage treatment costs are likely to exceed House-Well Drinking water surcharge. Therefore, reuse of sewage to be used by supporting mandatory regulations to ensure, and the need for the use of sewage water treatment enterprises, policy support

2.2       The impact of sewage irrigation

Hebei Province for agricultural irrigation sewage from the main towns of industrial and domestic sewage. Sewage containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients, the use of sewage irrigation, agricultural fertilizer provide resources to increase soil nitrogen and organic matter. However, As for agriculture Most of the sewage pipe untreated sewage containing sulfide, chloride, phenol, lead, chromium and other harmful substances, long-term irrigation of farmland would soil, groundwater and crops cause harm.

2.3       Reuse system is not included in the overall urban planning

Urban sewage treatment as industrial cooling and irrigation lakes and landscape, greening, flushing, wash water and other technically no longer, but due to the use of sewage users scattered, and not consumption, unboiled water after handling the pipeline system are urgently needed to solve the problem. therefore must be prepared as soon as reclaimed water reuse professional planning, identify renewable water pipeline distribution system to guide the regeneration of renewable water treatment plants and pipeline construction and management.

2.4  Renewable water price is not clear

Because the prices is not clear, renewable sewage water producers can not guarantee economic benefits, renewable water users can not meet the requirements of water, forming a pair of contradictions. Therefore, determine a reasonable price wastewater reuse is to promote the reuse of sewage an important prerequisite for

2.5  Renewable water and environmental quality of reclaimed water reuse of the key technical issues

As the city with a large quantity of sewage, organic ingredients and more complex features, Reclaimed Water Reuse is a more complicated issue, in particular, should be under a different purpose reuse, Research economically viable process, finding the best economic and technological programs to guarantee quality and meet environmental requirements.

3  City Wastewater Reuse countermeasures and Prospects

3.1  Sewage treatment plants must be reasonable planning

A combination of different urban layout, development planning, geographical hydrology, and other specific circumstances, urban sewage treatment plant for the construction of a rational plan to concentrate not only to guarantee the building of the efficient use of funds, reduce energy consumption, but also conducive to the coordinated regional water management. Meanwhile, only the construction of a major sewage treatment plant, City can guarantee to meet industrial needs to water.

3.2  Rapid introduction of wastewater reclamation and reuse the mandatory policy

Of large industrial enterprises, water quality and large complex units mandatory construction of small-scale sewage treatment plant for the production and recycling, government according to the actual situation of the plant construction investment for economic or policy support. For those who can use renewable water not to use, according to dosage reduction targets, increase water-treatment plans.

3.3       Sewerage renewable entrepreneurial production

Funded by the government building of a sewage treatment plant with heavy financial burden, a long construction period is not conducive to environmental protection and other shortcomings, be entrusted to the corresponding financial and technical strength of the municipal environmental protection enterprises, by the enterprises with independent owners or co-financing the construction and operation of enterprises through the charging recovery of the investment.

3.4       Strengthen the institutions of the House-Well Drinking management

Some units use of self-supplied well water, only to pay water charges not paid much attention to water-saving and Some even set up bypass pipeline to evade payment of water charges, causing a tremendous waste of water resources. relevant departments should take measures to intensify the best use of the House-Well Drinking unit costs.

3.5       Improve urban planning, the new projects related

Leading cadres at all levels should firmly establish the idea of sustainable development, and implementation of a sustainable development strategy, unswervingly follow the road of sustainable development. to improve the scientific decision-making level, the central bank, full consideration to the protection of the environment and the development of economic relations, socio-economic development of a virtuous cycle, must be a good first examination and approval of new projects and customs, new projects must meet the city's overall planning, the same time, corporate environmental assessment, eliminate a new source of pollution.

3.6       Ensure that there are laws to go by, the laws must be observed, laws

Governments at all levels should administer according to law, effectively on environmental quality responsibility, environmental protection objectives and measures for national economic and social development plans and annual plans, organized and implemented seriously. implement the responsibility system and law enforcement pursue a system for law enforcement agencies to perform their duties. become loyal guardians of Environmental Protection. Relevant departments should coordinate with each other, carry out their duties, to strengthen the environmental protection law enforcement efforts, stop for law enforcement, such as back door. This point has leading cadres from within. Environmental protection is an advanced culture important component of is a regional outlook, the level of civilization, culture, education an important indicator of quality, It is directly related to the people's vital interests, improve the quality of the environment, optimizing the ecological environment, of the people and improve the living standards of the important symbols We must take the improvement of environmental quality in environmental protection as the fundamental starting point and destination. We should treasure the environment, protect the environment, improve the environment and rational development, and let people form a "water-saving glorious, shameful waste" concept. With the increase of environmental awareness, Wastewater Reuse popularity and the government's increased enforcement efforts, Hebei Province, the ecological environment will be of significant change, "Green Hebei," We will not leave long

4  Conclusion

By analyzing current situation of water resources in Hebei province and sewage recycling the main issues, Reuse of wastewater supply and demand for the future, how to save water, Sewage recycling of countermeasures. enable the limited water resources to achieve maximum efficiency and facilitate the sustainable use of water resources. Hebei to the sustainable economic and social development and provide a strong support.


河北省水资源现状及污水再生利用

前言

水资源是人类生存与发展最宝贵的自然资源,随着城市人口剧增和经济发展,城市规模不断扩大,城市用水量和废水量不断增加,城市水资源的供需矛盾日益突出,水成为城市发展的最大制约因素.据统计,我国城市工业用水量占总用水量的80%左右,而工业用水重复利用率很低,同时,水源污染也日趋严重,许多大城市都将面临水资源短缺的严重威胁.河北省的水环境同样如此,水资源短缺和水污染严重制约着全省工农业经济的发展.

1 河北省水资源现状

河北省水资源具有“资源型”缺水和“水质型”缺水的双重特点,污水资源化程度较低.

1.1 水资源整体状况

河北省是国内最缺水的省份之一,人均水资源占有量仅为311m3,在全国31个省、市、自治区名列第28.城市水资源短缺更为突出,特别是夏季用水高峰期,不少城市经常出现用水不足的情况.据有关资料统计,我省城市日缺水量达150~170m3,所有城市都存在不同程度的缺水.石家庄市平均每年水资源为22.4亿m3,近几年,全市平均每年实际用水量已达35~40亿m3,亏缺的部分主要靠超采地下水补齐.同时,由于水资源的重复利用水平较低、节水观念淡薄、浪费严重,更加剧了人口过剩与资源短缺的矛盾.

1.2 河北省地下水现状

据查,全省地下水可开采资源量为119.86亿m3,地下水天然补给量为170.26亿m3.其中保定、石家庄两市地下水天然资源量相对较多,衡水、廊坊、秦皇岛三市最少,并且水位降落漏斗继续发展,据查,除邢台巨新漏斗、唐山宁河—唐海漏斗和廊坊漏斗面积略有减小外,沧州漏斗面积2005年比2004年扩大了2089km2;邢台宁柏隆漏斗面积扩大了659km2;其他漏斗面积相对稳定或略有扩大.另悉,大多数漏斗中心水位埋深继续加大.其中,保定一亩泉、邢台宁柏隆漏斗中心水位下降幅度均达5.50m,衡水漏斗、邢台巨新漏斗中心水位分别下降4.42m3.39m,沧州漏斗中心水位回升0.13m,廊坊漏斗中心水位回升2.18m.

1.3 生态环境日趋恶化

城市发展过程中不可避免地出现大气与水体污染、垃圾成堆、绿地减少、生态环境质量下降等环境问题.以水污染为例,河北省海河流域七大水系中70%~80%的河流受到污染,其中50%的河流属于重度污染,秦皇岛和承德还有一些清水,全省大多数河流总的状况是:缺少自然径流,基本失去稀释自净能力,已接近“有河皆枯,有水皆污”的境地.导致这些环境问题的因素很多:工农业生产工艺落后,废弃物处理和利用率较低,管理水平和技术装备滞后,再加上人口众多,环境压力大,更加重了环境污染

 污水处理及回用现状

由于全省加大了城市水环境治理的力度,近几年对城市排水设施建设的投入也有了较快增长,用于排水的投资从1991年的5463万元增加到近20亿元,城市污水日处理能力从1991年的35.5m3增长到5亿m3,污水的处理率有了很大提高.目前河北省城市污水处理规模约为5亿t/d,城市污水处理规模基本达到城市污水量的70%,为城市污水再生回用创造了良好的条件.随着城市排水事业管理体制的不断完善,设施运转率逐年提高,但污水的回用率却不高,污水排放量增加的速度远远大于污水回用增长的速度.污水回用的途径主要有工业用水、农业灌溉用水和市政用水.

通过以上分析可见,环境污染、水资源短缺等问题已严重威胁着城市的发展,在这种形势下,必须探索可持续发展的对策,处理好短期利益与长期利益的关系,经济建设与环境保护、资源利用的关系,从而促进城市的可持续发展,实现污水资源化.

2 制约污水再生回用的因素

城市污水资源化技术上可行,经济上合理.污水处理和深度净化用于农田灌溉、工业用水、市政用水的技术问题已经解决,相应规范和水质标准正在建立,而且经济上远比长距离调水投资少,运行费用低.污水回用的经济效益还能带动污水处理事业的发展,取得更大的环境效益和社会效益,是贯彻可持续发展战略的重要措施.但目前污水回用还未广泛应用,主要有以下几方面的因素:

2.1 缺乏必要的强制制度

一些国营大型企业生活和生产用水量很大,由于采用地下自备水源井供水,城市收取水资源费价格较低,使用处理后的再生水没有经济效益,甚至污水再生回用处理费用有可能高于自备井水资源费.因此,推行污水再生回用必须由配套的强制性法规来保证,且需要对使用污水处理水的企业给予政策支持.

2.2 污水灌溉的影响

河北省用于农灌的污水主要来自城镇的工业及生活污水.污水中含有氮、磷、钾等营养物质,利用污水灌溉,为农业提供了水肥资源,增加了土壤的氮素和有机质.但是,由于用于农业管道的污水大都未经处理,污水中含有硫化物、氯化物、酚、铅、铬等有害物质,长期灌溉农田会对土壤、地下水及农作物造成危害.

2.3 再生回用系统未列入城市总体规划

城市污水处理后作为工业冷却、农田灌溉和河湖景观、绿化、冲厕、洗车等用水在技术上已无问题,但是由于可使用污水的用户比较分散,且用水量都不大,处理后再生水的输送管道系统是急需解决的问题.因此必须尽快编制再生水回用专业规划,确定再生水管道系统的布局,以指导再生水处理厂和再生管道的建设与管理.

2.4 再生水价格不明确

由于价格不明确,污水再生水生产者不能保证经济效益,再生水使用者的用水要求得不到满足,形成一对矛盾.因此,确定一个合理的污水回用价格,是促进污水回用的重要前提

2.5 再生水的水质和环境质量是再生水回用技术的关键问题

由于城市污水具有量大、有机质多以及成分复杂的特点,再生水的回用是一个比较复杂的问题,特别是应根据不同的回用目的,研究经济可行的工艺流程,寻求最佳的经济技术方案,以保证水质并满足环境要求.

3 城市污水再生回用的对策及其展望

3.1 污水处理厂的建设必须合理规划

结合不同的城市布局、发展规划、地理水文等具体情况,对城市污水处理厂的建设进行合理规划、集中处理,既要保证建设资金的有效使用、降低处理能耗,又有利于区域水污染的协调管理.同时,只有建造大型污水处理厂,才能保证满足城市工业等回用水的需求.

3.2 尽快出台污水再生回用的强制性政策

对大型工业企业、用水量大户以及水质较复杂的单位,必须强制建设小型污水处理厂并进行生产回用,政府可根据实际情况对处理厂的建设投资给予经济或政策上的支持.对于可以使用再生水而不使用的,要按其用量核减指标,超计划用水加价处理.

3.3 推行污水再生的企业化生产

由政府出资建设污水处理厂具有财政负担重、建设周期长、不利于环境保护等缺点,可委托给具有相应资金和技术实力的环保市政企业,由企业独立或与业主合作筹资建设与运行,企业通过收费回收投资.

3.4 加强对企事业单位自备井的管理

有些单位由于使用自备井供水,只缴纳水资源费,不太重视节水,有的甚至设置旁通管道以逃避缴纳水资源费,造成水资源的极大浪费.有关管理部门应尽快采取措施,最好加大单位自备井的使用费用.

3.5 加强城市规划,把好新上项目关

各级领导干部要牢固树立可持续发展的思想,实施可持续发展的战略,坚定不移地走可持续发展的道路.要提高决策的科学水平,统筹兼顾,全面考虑保护环境与发展经济的关系,实现社会经济发展的良性循环,必须把好第一审批关和新上项目关,新上项目必须符合城市的整体规划,同时做好企业环境评价,杜绝产生新的污染源.做到有法必依,执法必严,违法必究。

各级政府要依法行政,切实对环境质量负起责任,把环境保护目标和措施纳入国民经济和社会发展规划及年度计划,认真组织实施.落实执法责任制和执法过错责任追究制,执法部门要履行职责,成为环境保护的忠诚卫士.有关部门要协调配合,恪尽职守,加强环保执法力度,杜绝执法中找关系、走后门等问题,而这一点需从领导干部自身做起.环境保护是先进文化的重要组成部分,是一个地区精神风貌、文明程度、文化教育品位的重要标志,它直接关系到人民群众的切身利益,改善环境质量,优化生态环境,是人民生活水平提高的重要标志,必须把提高环境质量作为环境保护的根本出发点和归宿.要珍惜环境、保护环境、优化环境、合理开发,让人们形成“节水光荣,浪费可耻”的观念.随着人们环保意识的增强、污水再生回用的普及以及政府执法力度的增加,河北省的生态环境一定会有很大的改观,“绿色河北”离我们不会久远.

结语

通过分析河北省水资源现状及污水再生利用存在的主要问题,对污水回用的供需前景进行了预测,对如何进行节水、污水再生利用提出了对策.可使有限的水资源发挥最大效益,以利于水资源的可持续利用,为河北省经济社会的可持续发展提供强有力的支持.

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